Understanding of Electrode Materials

The electrode material refers to the positive/negative electrode of the primary battery and the cathode and anode materials of the electrolytic cell. The common point is that the electrons are well conductive and can provide a large reaction area. Such as commonly used graphite felt, carbon felt, nickel foam, and so on.

Costs of the electrode materials have a significant role in determining the viability of MFC applications. The suitability of various types of electrode materials, including carbon cloth, carbon brush, carbon rod, carbon mesh, carbon veil, carbon paper, carbon felt, granular activated carbon, granular graphite, carbonized cardboard, graphite plate, reticulated vitreous carbon, and graphite, graphite felt, and platinum black, was assessed. Stainless steel plate, stainless steel mesh, stainless steel scrubber, silver sheet, nickel sheet, copper sheet, gold sheet, and titanium plate are examples of metal-based electrodes. To provide greater surface areas and pollutant adsorption, several electrode materials were created with porous architectures. To improve the power density and volumetric density of both the anode-based and cathode-based performances, three-dimensional electrodes were also constructed.

Sometimes, such as in electro-deposition and electro-dissolution, electrode materials can take part in electrochemical reactions. Additionally, it is possible to limit reactants, intermediates, or products onto the electrode surface (adsorbed species, oxide layers, covalently attached species, redox polymer species). A generalized method is difficult to apply since surface-involving activities affect voltammetric responses differently depending on their properties (adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, electron transfer related to adsorption, etc.

What Are Coatings Raw Materials

There are many types of coatings raw materials. There are generally four basic components of coatings: film formation substances (resin, lotion), pigments (including physical pigments), solvents, and additives.

According to the main membranes used in the coating, coating raw materials can be divided into oily coatings, fiber coatings, synthetic coatings, and inorganic coatings;
The traits of coatings or paint films can be divided into solution, latex, solitude, powder, powder, light, light, and colorful art paint.

Main Components

  • Film substance: The main components of coating film include oil, fat processing products, cellulose derivatives, natural resin, synthetic resin, and synthetic emulsion. The membrane substance also includes part of the non-volatile active diluent. It is the main substance that makes the coatings firmly attached to the coating surface to form a continuous film. It is the basis of the coating and determines the basic characteristics of the coating.

  • Pigments: Generally divided into two types, one is color pigment, common titanium pink, chromium yellow, etc., as well as constitutional pigments, which are often referred to as calcium carbonate, and talc powder.

  • Solvent: Including hydrocarbons. The main function of solvent and water is to disperse the film-forming base material and form a viscous liquid. It helps construction and improves the certain performance of coating film.

  • Additives: such as foam agents, etc., and some special functional auxiliary agents, such as the champion moisture agent. These additives generally cannot form a film and add a small amount, but play a very important role in the process and durability of the foundation.

What Are Petrochemicals

Products made by petrochemicals are ubiquitous and essential to contemporary society. Plastics, fertilizers, packaging, apparel, digital gadgets, medical equipment, detergents, tires, and many other items fall under this category. They can also be found in numerous components of the current energy system, including as those for solar panels, wind turbine blades, batteries, building thermal insulation, and electric vehicle components.

Petrochemicals refer to the manufacture of petroleum chemical industry with petroleum or natural gas as raw materials. After various processing processes, petroleum can make gasoline, kerosene, diesel, lubricating oil, paraffin, asphalt, oil focus, liquefied gas and other petroleum products. 

Hydrocarbons like propane, ethane, butane, or other substances that have been isolated from crude oil and natural gas liquids are used to make petrochemicals. Hydrocarbons that have undergone some type of distillation process can be put into a cracker, a production plant. In order to transform hydrocarbon feedstock into more useful chemicals for production, this works to break the chemical bonds in those materials. Ethylene, a significant petrochemical, is used to make polyethylene, one of the most significant plastics in manufacturing.

Petrochemical products are obtained from further chemical processing provided by the refining process. The first step in producing petrochemical products is to crack raw oil and gas (such as propane, gasoline, diesel, etc.), and generate basic chemical raw materials represented by ethylene, acryl, butadiene, benzene, toluene, and dyshane. The second step is to produce a variety of organic chemical raw materials and synthetic materials (synthetic resin, synthetic fiber, synthetic rubber) with basic chemical materials.

Medical Coupling Agents & Industrial Coupling Agents

A medical coupling agent is a medical product composed of a new generation of water-based polymer gel. Its pH value is neutral, is not toxic and harmless to the human body, is not easy to dry, is not easy to defeat, ultrasonic image is clear, viscous, non -greasy, the probe is easy to slide, moisturizing the skin, eliminating the surface air surface, good lubricating performance, easy to expand. Compared with traditional ordinary coupling agents, medical coupling agents are more stringent and more widely used in the production environment.


The industrial coupling agent is mainly based on motor oil, transformer oil, grease, glycerin, water glass, industrial glue, chemical paste, or commercialized ultrasound detection special coupling agent.


Medical Coupling Agent


It can be used as a Type A, B, and M -type ultrasound diagnostic instrument, and a doppler blood flow instrument, suitable for obstetrics and gynecology, digestive systems, urinary systems, nervous systems, neonatal, thyroid, and breast examination. Display clarity, the effect is excellent; no need to apply repeatedly, which is conducive to saving diagnostic time.


Because the medical ultrasonic frequency is 2.5-5m, it cannot be transmitted in the air. If there is air in the probe and the skin, the ultrasonic wave is returned as soon as the air encounters the air. Apply a layer of coupling agent on the skin to eliminate the air of the probe and the skin.


Industrial Coupling Agent

The industrial coupling agent is used to eliminate the air between the probe and the measured object so that ultrasonic waves can effectively penetrate the workpiece to achieve the purpose of detection. If the type of selection or the method is improper, the error or coupling logo will flash and cannot be measured. 

Because the appropriate type is selected according to the usage, when used on the surface of a smooth material, a low viscosity coupling agent can be used; when used on a rough surface, vertical surface, and top surfaces, the coupling agent with high viscosity should be used. High-temperature workpieces should be used for high-temperature coupling agents. Secondly, the coupling agent should be used in moderation and the smear is evenly applied. Generally, the coupling agent should be applied to the surface of the measured material, but when the measurement temperature is high, the coupling agent should be applied to the probe.

Types of Oil Additives and Their Functions 

Nearly all commercial motor oil formulations contain additives, whether the oils are synthetic or petroleum-based. Up to 5% of the oil that is put into your engine contains these additives. But what kinds of additives are employed in the production of motor oil? How do they behave? Do other oil additives exist that can improve the motor oil used in your car?

Types of Oil Additives in Engine

Engines from a time when non-detergent motor oils were the norm tended to cake up with sludge and impurity coatings. Detergent-containing motor oils should not be used in vintage, original engines because of this. If not, the detergents will remove the deposits that are most likely plugging spaces between engine parts and seals. And this results in leakage. But that issue shouldn't exist with a current engine. Modern engines' oil contains detergents that help spread gunk that can accumulate over time. In order to remove oil contaminants that can coat important engine components, detergents are utilized.

Anti-corrosion Agents
Moisture can accumulate inside an engine during temperature changes, which can result in rust and corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors are applied to delay the oxidation of the metals inside your motor in order to solve this issue.

Motor oil is susceptible to deterioration from oxygen exposure. Antioxidant compounds stop this deterioration and lengthen your motor oil's usable life.

Supplementary Additives
Other modifiers in motor oil include those that counteract the oil's propensity to gather acids when subjected to shear wear and oxidation as well as those that neutralize acidic chemicals. For this reason, bases and alkalis are added to the oil.

The Additives in Oil

To clean and protect your engine, modern motor oil contains a variety of chemicals. However, these oil additives may get depleted due to the high operating temperatures of modern engines and the stop-and-go driving style of many drivers. Without them, oxidation and other factors will turn your oil into a thick, insoluble sludge that clogs oil channels and adheres to important engine components.

Everything You Should Know About Sulpher Dyes

Sulpher dyes are synthetic organic substantial colors made by thionation or sulphurization of organic intermediates containing nitro and amino groups. They are typically used on cotton and other cellulose fiber materials after being reduced in a sodium sulfide-containing bath.
The reason the dyes have a sulphur linkage in their molecular structure is that when they dissolve in a solution of sodium sulfide, which acts as a reducing agent, the sulphur linkage is broken and the molecules are broken down into simpler parts that are soluble in water and substantive to cellulose.

Mechanism of sulpher dyeing: The molecules of sulpher dyes contain sulpher linkages. They are insoluble in water, but they can be treated with reducing chemicals to make them soluble in water, and they exhibit substantiality toward cellulose. As a reducing agent, sodium sulfide dissociates the molecules' sulfur bonds and breaks them down into less complex parts that can more readily permeate the surface of fabrics. The thiols that include -SH groups are easily converted by an oxidizing agent in the fiber to the original insoluble sulphur dyes, which produce color with excellent wet fastness.

Accessories for Sulphur Dyeing 

1. As a first step, reducer sodium sulfide and sodium hydrosulphide are the two most significant reducing agents for sulpher dyes. The molecules of the sulpher dyes have sulfur linkages. They are insoluble in water but can be treated with reducing chemicals to make them soluble in water, and they exhibit substantiality toward cellulose. As a reducing agent, sodium sulfide breaks down molecules into simpler parts so they can more easily permeate the surface of fabrics.

2. Oxidizing agents: In the following dyeing, it is necessary to oxidize the reduced, water-soluble form of the dye in order to return it to its original, water-insoluble state. Oxidizing substances include dichromate, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonium persulfate. The thiols with the -SH groups are easily converted by an oxidizing agent in the fiber to the original insoluble sulpher dyes, which results in color with excellent wet fastness.

3. Sequestering agents: Where water quality is poor, sulphur dyes are frequently dyed using sodium hexametaphosphate, the sodium salt of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. 

4. Wetting agents: Most wetting agents have little effect on the majority of sulfur dyes. Both in the pre-scouring step and the dye bath itself, these non-ionic surfactants should be avoided.

Food Additives: Definition, Features & Functions

What Are Food Additives

Food additives refer to chemical synthesis or natural substances in food quality and color, fragrance, and taste, as well as the need for anti-corrosion and processing technology. Because of the rapid development of the food industry, food additives have become an important part of the modern food industry, and have become an important driving force for the technological progress of the food industry and technological innovation. In the use of food additives, in addition to ensuring the functions they play, the most important thing is to ensure the safety and health of food.

Features of Food Additives

Food additives have the following three characteristics:

  • The first is to join the material in food, so it generally does not eat it alone;
  • The second is not only artificially synthetic substances but as well as natural substances;
  • Third, the purpose of adding to food is to improve the needs of food quality and color, fragrance, taste, and the needs of preservation, freshness, and processing.

Main Function of Food Additives

Food additives have greatly promoted the development of the food industry and are known as the soul of the modern food industry. This is mainly because it brings many benefits to the food industry. The main role is as follows:

Prevent Deterioration

Preservatives can prevent food corruption caused by microorganisms, extend the preservation period of food, and also have food poisoning caused by microbial pollution.
Antioxidants can prevent or delay the oxidation and deterioration of food to provide food stability and precipitation, and at the same time prevent the formation of possible harmful oil automatic oxidative substances. In addition, it can be used to prevent foods, especially the enzymatic brown change and non-enzymatic brown change of fruits and vegetables.

Improve Food Sensory Traits

Proper use of food additives such as colorants, color care agents, bleaching agents, edible spices, emulsifiers, thickeners, etc. can significantly improve the sense of the sensory quality of food and meet people's different needs.

Add Nutrition
Adding some food nutritional reinforcements that belong to the natural nutritional range during food processing can greatly increase the nutritional value of food, which is of great significance to preventing malnutrition and nutritional deficiency, promoting nutritional balance, and improving people's health.

Convenient Supply
In production engineering, most of the products of color, fragrance, and taste are mostly added with color, fragrant, seasoning, and even other food additives to varying degrees. It is these many foods, especially the supply of food, which brings great convenience to people's lives and works.

Easy Processing
The use of anti-foaming agents, filtrates, stability, coagulants, etc. in food processing can help food processing operations.

Other Special Needs
Food should meet people's different needs as much as possible. For example, people with diabetes cannot eat sugar, they can use non -nutritious sweeteners or low-thermal sweeteners.

What Are Food Coloring Agents

Any dye, pigment, or chemical that gives food or beverages color when added is referred to as a food coloring agent. They are available in a variety of forms, including liquids, powders, gels, and pastes. Both commercial and home cookery employ the use of food coloring agents. Food coloring agents are also utilized in a wide range of non-food products, including cosmetics, medications, household crafts, and medical equipment.

Function of Food Coloring Agents

People tend to associate particular hues with particular flavors, and anything from wine to candy can have its flavor perception influenced by its color. Foods may contain food coloring agents for a variety of purposes, such as: enhancing the appearance, flavor, and nutritional value of the food; compensating for color loss caused by exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture, and storage conditions; and correcting for color variations that occur naturally; enhance naturally occurring hues; add color to "fun" and colorless dishes; Allow consumers to instantly recognize products, such as the flavors of candies or quantities of medications.

Classification of Food Coloring Agents

Any ingredient that is added to a composition to alter the color is a coloring. The addition of food coloring agents is one of the most obvious ways to change how a product appears. These include washes that accentuate browning as well as natural and synthetic coloring agents.

Food colors can be divided into two categories: artificial and natural. Unless they are used to color the same kind of product, a natural coloring agent cannot lawfully be referred to as natural colors on a food label. For instance, beet juice is only truly a natural hue when applied to beets. It is technically considered to be artificially colored and beet juice is considered a color additive if it tints cherry juice.

A rise in the commercial production of natural food coloring agents is being attributed in part to consumer concerns around synthetic coloring agents. The colorful components of these compounds are frequently provided in highly pure form to assure reproducibility, and for convenience and greater stability, they can be packaged in suitable carrier materials.

Top 6 Advantages of Coenzyme Q10

Free radicals are the result of numerous biological processes that occur in our bodies normally. These substances can occasionally lead to oxidative stress, a type of cellular damage. Many of coenzyme Q10's health advantages stem from this enzyme's capacity to guard against oxidative stress. Following are six advantages of coenzyme Q10.

1. Help with Heart Diseases and Cardiac Failure

Heart failure is not a random occurrence. It develops as a result of injury from heart disorders including hypertension or coronary artery disease. However, research suggests that coenzyme Q10 might be helpful. Another study's coenzyme Q10-treated participants experienced fewer hospitalizations for worsening heart failure symptoms or signs than the placebo group. Because coenzyme Q10 helps to restore healthy energy generation and heart function while also guarding against oxidative damage, researchers think it can help people with heart failure feel better.

2. Help to Lower Blood Pressure

One risk factor for cardiovascular disease is hypertension, which is excessively high blood pressure. But by bringing down these amounts in hypertensive people, coenzyme Q10 may be able to improve heart health and lessen their chance of developing heart disease.

3. Help with Parkinson’s

In a single modest clinical trial, coenzyme Q10 was able to delay the onset of deficits in people with Parkinson's disease. The enzyme was significantly more effective than a placebo at all levels, although the highest dose (1200 mg of coenzyme Q10 daily) was the most successful.

4. Reduce Symptoms of Statin-induced Myopathy

Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering medications frequently recommended to patients with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Myopathy, a disorder where muscle fibers don't function properly, is one of the most dangerous possible adverse effects of statin medications. However, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies reveals that coenzyme Q10 might be able to lessen this impact. When given the supplement, patients with statin-induced myopathy experienced fewer symptoms than those receiving placebos.

5. Experience Fewer Migraines

It has been discovered that migraineurs have lower amounts of coenzyme Q10 than people who do not experience incapacitating migraines. In fact, their levels are so low that a coenzyme Q10 deficit is implied. However, incorporating coenzyme Q10 into your supplement routine may lessen migraines. In limited research, oral doses of the enzyme effectively reduced migraine symptoms when compared to a placebo. Fewer headache days, migraine attack frequency, and headache-induced nausea were observed in those taking coenzyme Q10.

6. Boost Physical Performance

Because coenzyme Q10 helps mitochondria and cells produce energy, it is possible that a deficiency in coenzyme Q10 will affect how well muscles work and how well people perform physically. Free radicals can harm cells during exercise as well. But according to one study, taking coenzyme Q10 supplements can stop this from happening after strenuous exercise.